Engineering Services in Nuclear Energy Field
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When constructing a nuclear plant, it is not only necessary to rationally incorporate tens of thousands of components inside the buildings, and to provide the specified functions for total plant systems, but also to equally consider safety, reliability, ease of operation and maintenance and minimization of radiation exposure.
To satisfy these basic requirements, JGC draws upon its total engineering skills. When executing a project, JGC forms a powerful project team based on unified concepts. Drawing on its unique project management system, JGC can control cost, schedule and quality, and coordinate the multitude of engineering tasks involved.
JGC's project management provides the following services:
- Overall project management and coordination
- Information processing
- Schedule control
- Design control
- Purchase and cost control
- Quality control
- Personnel and manpower control
JGC has completed more than 20,000 projects to date. Its project managers are very well trained and possess a wealth of experience and know-how to draw upon when engaged in projects.
JGC has additionally devised its own management system based on a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). A project is rationally completed from engineering to construction by treating it as a single total entity.
In basic design work, necessary information is first evaluated and specifications determined in accordance with the design basis.
Basic matters handled at this stage include process evaluation, the process control system, material and radioactivity balance, operating conditions, equipment selection and required utilities. Improvements are realized by thoroughly studying and evaluating earlier plants, taking into consideration reduction in the life cycle cost. Together with these improvements, equipment layout piping and the basic plan of the buildings are developed in consideration of material flow, construction, operation, maintenance and safety. Safety is analyzed and the engineering policy established with due consideration to safe plant operation, containment requirements, worker protection from radiation exposure, criticality prevention, operation monitoring functions and accident evaluation.
A well-balanced and detailed design is created for each technical field, including equipment, piping, civil, architectural, instrumentation and electrical engineering, as well as ventilation and air-conditioning in accordance with the basic design data that includes basic specifications, piping and instrumentation, and layout drawings. JGC also upgrades reliability by computerizing the methods of structural, aseismic, and shield designs, effectively using CAD/CAM systems. JGC further refines design reliability by 3D systems to assure design suitability.
JGC originates the basic plans of buildings, creates structural and aseismic designs in accordance with basic design data, and devises shielding, ventilation and air-conditioning, as well as aesthetic designs based on plant requirements.
JGC is dedicated to ensuring the safety and reliability of nuclear plants while also meeting the needs of society and client demands. JGC therefore administers all work that influences the quality of the plants it constructs in accordance with ISO9001 and quality assurance guidelines issued by Japan Electric Association (JEA).
Design, procurement manufacturing and construction, from engineering to test operations, are carried out under a unified management system in accordance with the schedule. JGC also periodically audits the management systems of its vendors and the manner in which they are implemented, issuing as required to achieve a complete quality assurance system. These quality assurance efficiencies are backed by JGC's history of experience and expertise. JGC is proud of its resultant distinguished reputation in the engineering industry.
When designing a plant, JGC supports the preparation of construction permit applications, safety analysis reports and operation license applications for its customers. In addition, JGC committees investigate future trend data on domestic regulations recommended administrative guidelines, and past experience in licensing activities. JGC also obtains and analyzes information on nuclear licensing in the United States, international codes and standards of the United States, China, France and other countries, and keeps continual watch on international movements. These results are integrated into JGC's plant design.
Nuclear Safety Analysis/Evaluation
JGC analyzes and evaluates the safety of the following items which are unique to nuclear power and nuclear fuel cycle systems:
- Shielding design (gamma radiation, neutron radiation)
- Criticality safety design
- Activity balance calculation
- Decay heat evaluation (including spent nuclear fuel)
- Environmental safety assessment
- Accident evaluation
- Safeguards, physical protection design, etc.
When shaping these designs and evaluations, JGC meets the dual demands of the Japanese government and JGC's clients by using application programs internationally registered with OECD/NEA, as well as JGC's own independently created computer programs.
JGC also expands upon the following system applications for nuclear power plants in compliance with client needs:
- Comprehensive waste management system for controlling waste sources, classification, contents and material flow.
- Management system by the application of a data base encompassing maintenance, inspection, operation and other records.
- Document control system for design drawings, inspection reports, licensing and other documentation.
JGC works closely together with clients to resolve technical subjects particular to those clients, such as improvement of existing facilities, by applying accumulated and new technologies and expertise, and through other efforts made.
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For the procurement of all equipment and materials necessary for plant construction, JGC conducts quality assurance audits of vendors who are then chosen based, among other factors, on a comprehensive evaluation of their functions, delivery time, quality, and experience.
To ensure that ordered equipment meets JGC's design and other specifications, an independent inspection team rigorously examines and controls product quality. JGC conducts on-site quality control for building, installation, piping, ventilation and air-conditioning, and electrical instrumentation work, and assists clients undergoing government inspections.
Manufacturing Process Control
JGC's process control department directs the equipment manufacturing, delivery and shop-fabrication processes at the vendor's shop; issues manufacturing instructions to vendors; and moves to ensure that manufactured equipment will be delivered on schedule.
Using the latest construction technologies, a construction plan is drawn up and carried out in accordance with optimum schedule and cost by using process control methods based on the WBS network method. These practices strive for a logical and functional integration of the various phases of the construction which include installation of complex equipment, piping, electrical work, instrumentation and ventilation facilities in buildings.
To ensure long and trouble-free operation after completion and turnover, the plant is run on a temporary basis to expose and eliminate any possible weaknesses before client delivery.
JGC prepares and supplies operation manuals to assure efficient and safe plant operation. JGC can also train clients' operators who are responsible for actual operation of units and equipment; handling; maintenance; control; and operation methods covering all phases from test operations to commercial operation.
JGC monitors the soundness of client facilities and materials through daily inspections and preparatory diagnoses. JGC has also developed various maintenance equipment, and rational and safe maintenance is fulfilled within a short time based on safety and exposure controls.
For the minimization of personnel exposure, JGC uses a combination of various chemical and physical decontamination technologies and organic and inorganic decontamination reagents.
Improvement of Components
JGC constantly improves equipment components, such as valves, for easier maintenance, increased reliability and minimum personnel exposure.
JGC has shaped and applied new technology for diagnosing the soundness of equipment used in nuclear plants, in order to meet client demands. This technology enables engineers to remotely diagnose plant integrity in "hot" areas where workers cannot enter.
Radiation control is crucial for transacting construction, test operations, improvements and maintenance in controlled areas.
JGC has carried out such radiation control in the performance of numerous hot jobs involving exposure to radiation in reprocessing and research facilities and nuclear power plants. All have been successfully accomplished with no over-exposure to workers, accidents, or disasters.
JGC draws up control plans, trains workers, monitors the exposure dose rate during the job length, properly and effectively measures conditions in the working environment and provides the necessary documents for relevant government departments.
JGC secures safety control plans based on the detailed construction plan. It encourages mutual understanding with those in charge before starting construction work, issues safety instructions to them, and audits the work during the entire construction period.
JGC possesses extensive experience in constructing various facilities including buildings, piping, electrical and other equipment, instrumentation, and ventilation. JGC has also originated numerous shop-fabrication techniques that have refined construction quality. Since nuclear plants often require sophisticated welding technology, JGC has also pioneered its own techniques.